This non-doctor testing page contains information concerning testing your blood sugar level.
If you don't know if you are diabetic, or pre-diabetic, and don't want to take the time to meet with a medical professional for formal testing, ask a diabetic friend to let you use his test-meter. Be sure to put in a new needle before testing and to discard that needle after your test. This only takes a minute or two. Best time to do it is in the morning, before you eat.
Another inexpensive way is with simple urine testing strips, available from most drug stores. The directions on the box usually says something like "Put the strip in your urine stream." Then you watch the strip and see if it turns color and if it does, the color of the strip, as explained in the directions, will give you a general idea of whether you have severe excess sugar in your blood. This test is once-removed (tests blood in urine, not blood) and therefore isn't very accurate. But its better than checking for ants around the toilet.
Another, short of seeing a doctor, is to buy test strips and a blood sugar meter. Most drug stores sell them for under $50. Though there is a wide variation in the blood sugar level shown, depending on the manufacturer, these strips are usually better for showing blood sugar than urine testing. You should at least be able to get some idea whether your blood sugar level is getting better or worse from these strips. They require poking your finger and dipping the test strip into the blood which comes out following the finger prick.
How often you should test your blood depends on a lot of factors. Some test every few hours, some every day, some every week. Check this with your doctor.
According to wikipedia, your target blood sugar range should be between 70 and 130 (mg/dL) before meals, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals (as measured by a blood sugar monitor). Generally, the closer you can get to 100 mg/dL (or below)) before breakfast, the better.
Some have to take drugs or insulin to control their blood sugar. Others can do so with diet. Still others claim to do so with exercise. Again, check with your doctor.
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